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Off-centred Crosses (Overview)

Last modified: 2008-08-16 by rob raeside
Keywords: cross | cross: off-centred | cross: scandinavian | scandinavian cross |
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Below is a compilation of off-centred crosses (as in many Scandinavian flags), found on flags on this web site. Note that, although commonly described as Scandinavian crosses, the flags linked here include many variants from many places in and outside Scandinavia, and many have little or nothing to do with Scandinavian flag traditions. Fimbriation colours are identified in brackets. Crosses in italics are proposals, or flags of uncertain or dubious status.

White Yellow Red Blue Green Black Other
BR São Paulo (red),
FI Finnish Yacht Club (blue),
IS University of Iceland (blue),
LV Latvian Scandinavian cross (red),
NL Diever (red), Idaerderadiel (red)

RU Stavropol,
Catholic Cathedra of Stockholm
West Sweden (blue),
Swedish speaking in the Baltic (blue),
Swedish speaking in the Baltic (red)

CH Thunstetten, Switzerland,
DE Schleswig-Holstein (19th Century variants),
DK Denmark,
GL Greenland - Administration Ships, Greenland (green),
HK Hong Kong Baptist Boat flag,
LV Cesis, Latvia,
NL Goor,
NO Norway (1814), Vestlandet (blue),
UA Volyinia
US Black Star Line

VI Virgin Islands souvenir flag

EC Manta, Manabi,
EE Parnu, Estonia (black), Estonian Ramblers Association,
ES Vilabertran, Catalonia
FI Bothnia, Finland 1863 proposal,
FR Calais,
GB Shetland,
IS Iceland 1897,
US ED Hurlbut & Co Appalachicola Line

CA Chilliwack, BC
EE Tyri Linn, Jarvamaa,
GB Barra,
GL Greenland, Greenland (blue),
NL Zwagerbos, Marum, Haaren (green, white)
NO Saami,
PR Puerto Rico Independence Party,
US New Milford, Connecticut USA

DK Sorgeflag
white cross on grey:
LV Aluksne

white cross on purple:
USA Scranton University,


AX Åland (blue),
DE Teutonic Order (black)
NL Borger-Odoorn, Drenthe, Netherlands (red),
NO Northern Norway (red),
SE Norrland (blue), AIK Club, Sweden (black), Swedish Tourist Association (blue)

Other Nordisk Flaggselskapp (red)

DE CDU proposal for Germany (black), German Young Democrat's League (black), German Free Democratic Party,
ES Castañeda
FI Swedish speaking people in Finland, Finland 1863 proposal, Norrland (blue),
NO Trøndeland (blue), Nasjonal Samling, Norway,
SE Skåneland,
SY Teshreen Club, Latakia, Syria,
UA Volodarka District, Ukraine (vertical)

BR Pernambuco Yacht Club,
DE North Friesland variant (red),
LV Riga, Latvia (17th C),
NL Beers, Veghel, Tilburg, Oldenzaal Hanseatic flag, Bunschoten,
SE Sweden, Hälsingland (red),

CZ Svatojanský Újezd
ES Avinyó, Spain,
HR Pula (Croatia),
SE Öland

SE Härjedalen,
AU Sydney,
BE Compagnie Maritime Belge du Congo,
BY Christian-Democratic Union,
CA Mi'kmaq state flag, Western Canada Steamship Company
DE Biggesee Rowing Club (white, red)
DK Jutland,
EE Seto People (patterned)
ES Luesia, Spain (with yellow fly triangle)
FO Faroe Islands (blue),
GB Lundy, Yorkshire, Lloyds of London burgee (dark blue)
GE Georgian Orthodox Church(white, blue)
IT Raggio & Co. Shipping
LV Ventspils
NL Havelte, De Schelde House Flag, Rosmalen, De Maas rowing club honorary member
TO Tonga naval ensign (white, red),
US Funch & Meinke Lines, ED Hurlbut & Co Pensacola Line, Pioneer Line of Australia Packets
Other Episcopal Church, Flag Institute

DE Christian Democratic Union proposal (black),
FI Finland proposal (1863) (blue), Finnish merchant ensign (1918) (blue, white)
GB Orkney Islands,
NL Ruurlo, Herten, Netherlands (blue edges)
Other Norden

FR Normandie (yellow), Mouvement Normand (yellow)

AX Åland (yellow),
BE Compagnie Maritime Belge,
BR Alegre Espírito Santo (yellow), Domingos Martins, Chapadinho, Maranhão (yellow), Espírito Santo (yellow),
CL Chilean Ministers and Diplomats (white),
DE Oldenburg,
IS Iceland (white), Iceland president (white)
FI 1863 proposal (yellow), 1863 proposal (green),
IN Mizoram (white),
SE Bohuslän,
Other Marriage of the Century (fictional kingdom) (light blue),

ES Montornés del Vallès (white),
NL Lemmer,

SE Småland,
Småland (white),

DE German flag proposals, ca. 1919 (yellow)
MX Mariano Matamoros - Battalion of San Pedro
CL Chilean Sailing Federation,
CO Andalucia,
CZ Kostelecké Horky
ES Alvargonzález S.A.
FI Finland,
FR République Libre du Frioul,
GE Tbilisi (white, gold)
HR Lekenik
IS Iceland proposal (1914) (white, blue),
NL Nautilus Rowing Club, Oosterhesselen, Wierden, Wittem
PR Bayamon (yellow),
RU Karelia (1930 proposal) (orange),
SV Maya Lenca people,
US ED Hurlbut & Co Mobile Line
Religion Mormon heritage flag (white, blue)

DE Northern Frisia (red),
IT Parma
SE Gøtaland,
RU Ingria (red),
NL Lelystad, Oldekerk
ZA Durban Coasters

AU Greater Melbourne ensign (white),
GB Orkney Islands (yellow), Monarch Steamship Co. (white),
NO Norway (white), Trøndeland  (yellow),
US Wells & Emanuel / Empire Line

AX Åland (yellow)
GB Frixos V. Papachristidis (white)

RU Vepsians (yellow), Lyydi Karelia (red)
US Portland, OR (white, yellow, white)

SE IFK Göteborg club
DE Mark Rowing Club (white, black)
SE Norrland
ZA South African Naval Ensign 1952-81

SE Gotland

DK Bornholm,
Bornholm (white),
NL Buitenpost (white)

NL Vendsyssel (orange) RU Votia, Russia,
SE Öland (yellow),

NL Haaren (white)

RU Karelia (red),
BR Santos Futebol Clube,
DE Teutonic Order,
German Empire (white, black), Rostocker Rowing Club (white, black)
FR Bezen Perot (Breton Political movement), Bagadou Stourm (Breton paramilitary movement) (white, yellow); St. John's Order in Brittany
LV Latvian National Guard (1941-44),
NL IJsselham (red),
USA Staunton, Virginia (white, black),
Other Baltic Duchy,

BR Clube de Regatas União,
DE Rowing club on the Teichwiesen
NL Anloo (yellow, black),
Vledder (yellow, black),

DE German Third Reich war ensign (white, black, white), Wirmer proposal for Germany (yellow),
GB Monarch Steamship Co.

FR Bleimor (Sea scouts, Brittany)(white),
RU East Karelia 1919-1920 (red),
Other Vinnland (musical group) (white)

HRA Reformist (Evangelist?) Church in Croatia

NL Heel en Panheel

ZA Safmarine, South Africa (blue)


SE Småland,
Småland (white)

Other brown on white: Swainsboro, Georgia USA            
White Yellow Red Blue Green Black  

Multicoloured off-centred cross-type flags

The following flags use an off-centred cross-type design, but cannot be described on the table above. They are described by describing the colours of the cross on a field, labeled by quarter. Any fimbriation is shown in brackets following - if more than one colour, the order is inside-out.

I recently received the INFO bulletin of the "Vlaggen Dokumentatie Centrum Nederland" (Flag Documentation Center of the Netherlands). It lists a number of flags using the Nordic [off-centred] cross design. Derk [Derkwillem Visser, Jr.; the editor] states that they come from "Under Nordisk Flagg" (Under the Northern Flags) by Per Andersson.

William M. Grimes-Wyatt, 6 March 1996

Corrections and additions by Jan Oskar Engene, Željko Heimer and Pascal Vagnat.

Two other books may be of interest:

  • Per Andersson: Under nordisk flagg, Mjolby: Drakings bokforlag, 1994
  • Per Andersson: Nordiska korsflaggor, Mjolby: Bokforlaget Draking, 1992

Both books are in Swedish. The latter one is more concentrated on flags than the former. One problem with these works is that there are no references, so we are often not told when and where the flags surfaced. I am skeptical towards the existence of some of them. Probably, quite a few of the designs are merely proposals. The lack of references and documentation in the booklets mentioned, made it difficult to decide the status of some of the flags.

Jan Oskar Engene, 7 March 1996

What defines a Scandinavian Cross?

A Scandinavian cross would by most vexillologists be defined as a straight-armed cross on a flag which goes out to the ends of the flag and which has the centre of the cross set closer to the hoist than to the fly.
Elias Grandqvist, 13 April 2001

The term Scandinavian cross is used to describe a 'hoist-ward off-set straight-armed orthogonal cross throughout' when this is appropriate, that is, when there is indeed a connection to Scandinavia, and not to do so otherwise.  Some vexillologists would insist that the connection to Scandinavia is essential, others don't.
Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 4 July 2001

How many Scandinavian Cross flags are there?

I don't know if you can say for sure, exactly how many flags with Scandinavian crosses there are. It depends a bit on what flag you want to consider. Some flags with Scandinavian crosses are unofficial, private initiatives for some geographical areas, others are merely proposals which might never really have been in use.

There are 5 countries in the world today which have flags with Scandinavian crosses as their official national flags. All of them also have Scandinavian crosses in their state and/or their war flags. Would the later special flags count as flags on their own when counting the flags with Scandinavian crosses?
Elias Grandqvist, 13 April 2001


There's a book about flags with this types of crosses, "Nordiska Korsflaggor", written by Per Andersson (1992). This book is known to not be very specific about sources, so some people regard many of the flags described in it as rather dubious.

Elias Grandqvist, 13 April 2001

Related pages

See also